Craft Beer 101
Before we learn about beer styles, we need to know how to talk about them. Below are some terms to start you on your journey.
Light-Medium-Dark: In reference to color of the beer only. Light beers can be straw-colored, yellow, gold, tan. Medium-colored beers can be amber, red, copper, orange. Dark beers can be brown, black, opaque, coffee-like.
Light-Medium-Heavy: In reference to the body and mouthfeel of the beer. Light-bodied beers tend to be clean and crisp. Heavy-bodied beers tend to cling to the mouth, feel oily, rich, or full.
Malty: Malted barley (or malt) is a main beer ingredient of beer. The level of kilning or roasting determines the color and flavor (like how roasting affects coffee beans). Lighter malts taste nutty, biscuity, like cereal; medium roasts like toffee or caramel; and dark roasts like coffee, dark chocolate, dried dark fruits.
Hoppy: Another main beer ingredient that imparts flavor and aroma. Hops can be fruity: apple, citrus, tropical fruits; or piney: resin, pine needles, wood; or floral, earthy, spicy, grassy.
Bitter: Bitterness comes from hops, but not all hoppy beers are bitter. It all depends on when you add the hops. When balanced with strong malt character, bitterness can be quite pleasant.
Fruity: Common fruity flavors and aromas are lemon, banana, grapefruit, apricot, plum, cherry.
Spicy: Not spicy like chilies – though adventurous brewers use those too – but spicy like coriander, clove, pepper, star anise.
In the interest of creating a beginner’s guide, the styles listed below are general descriptions, and some aren’t even mentioned at all.
Pale Ales / India Pale Ales (IPA)
All pale ales and IPAs use hops prominently, but the American versions, especially those from the West Coast, are much hoppier. English and American brewers also tend to use different hop varieties, which results in distinct flavors. English ales lean towards spicy and green, while American ales lean towards citrus and pine.
Most beers use 100% malt, but not so with these beers which use 40-60% wheat instead of malted barley and result in a lighter body and bright, clean taste. Prominent flavors come from the yeast and sometimes spices. German hefeweizens (or weissbiers) have strong banana, bubblegum, and/or clove flavors, while Belgian whites (or witbiers) rely on citrus, coriander and other spices for their flavor profile.
“The Dark Stuff”: Reds /Ambers /Browns /Porters /Stouts
Malts are the stars of this category. Reds, ambers, and browns tend to be light-to medium-bodied with toast, toffee, and caramel flavors, while porters, and stouts are medium-to-heavy-bodied with chocolate, coffee, and roasty characters. A lot of roastiness can come off as bitter, but sub-styles like an oatmeal or milk stout are creamier and sweeter to compensate.
The distinctive flavors of these beers come from a combination of yeast and adjuncts (ingredients that are not part of the usual beer recipe of malt, hop, water, and yeast) like brown sugar and spices. Belgian pales, saisons, singles, and tripels are light in color and sometimes in body and tend to have bright spice flavors like coriander and pepper, while Belgian dubbels and quadruples are dark in color and almost always heavy in body with licorice, star anise, and dark fruit flavors.
Lagers and Pilsners
Most Americans are familiar with this style with the ubiquity of macro-brews like Coors, Bud, and Pabst Blue Ribbon. Craft versions, however, typically use all malted barley and no corn. Light body, crisp and bright on the tongue, lagers and pilsners are clean in flavor with some spicy or herbal hop flavor and aroma. If you have an Oktoberfest near you, you’ll find caramel-like malts in the amber lagers.